Ketlp

in #esteem3 years ago

al'ahwal hi juz' muhimun min allughat li'anaha tueabir ean kayfiat eamal (feal). eindama nurid 'an nsf eadad almaraat alty yatimu fiha aleamal , nahtaj 'iilaa aistikhdam zuruf alturadud. walakun kayf takhtalif , wa'ayn yjb 'an daeahum fi aljamlata? aqra limaerifat dhalik.
ma hi zuruf altrdd?
yasif zarf altakrar eadad almarrat alty yahduth fiha 'iijra'. hunak stt halat rayiysiat liltaradudat alty nastakhdimuha biallughat al'iinjliziat: daymana , eadatan (aw eadtan) , ghalbana , fi bed al'ahyan , nadrana , w nevernever. 'iinaha takhtalif fi mustawaa altaradud , ymkn 'an naraa 'adnah.

yumkinuna aydana aistikhdam "nadrana" kabdil l "nadrana" , walakunah lays shayeana jdana fi allughat al'iinjliziat alhadithat.
mawqif al'ahwal min altaradud
kama taraa fi aljadwal aelah , fa'iina almawqif al'akthar shyweana lizarf altaradud hu bayn almawdue walfuel. wahuna bed al'amthilat al'ukhraa:
sart dayimaan takhruj fi 'amsiaat alsibt.
eadatan ma yakhtaruha sadiqiha wayaqud alsayarat 'iilaa wasat almadinati.
yajtamieun fi kthyr min al'ahyan mae al'asdiqa' wayashrabun meana.
fi fasl alshita' yadhhabun 'ahyanaan 'iilaa alsiynama.
nadirana ma yadhhabun fi alsayf li'anahum yafdilun albaqa' fi alkharij.
la yaeuduu 'iilaa almanzil qabl mntsf allayl.
walaistithna' min hadhih alqaeidat hu alfiel "to be be." mae aljamal alty tustakhdam alfiel "to be" , yati zarf altaradud baed alfiel. ealaa sabil almathal:
hnak dayimaan alkthyr min alnnas fi wasat almadinat fi layali alsibt.
min alsaeb ghalbana aleuthur ealaa makan li'iiqaf alsayarati.
lkn 'asdiqa'una laysuu fi maweidiha , lidha la yuhim 'iidha takhurna.
kama hu alhal fi kthyr min al'ahyan fi allughat al'iinjliziat , hnak aikhtilafat lihadhih alqaed. ealaa sabil almithal , min almmkn wade alzuruf "fy bed al'ahyan" w "eada" fi bidayat aljmlt:
'ahyanaan taqum biwajibiha almanzilii mae al'asdqa'.
eadat ma yadrusun bimufradihim.
walakun min alsahl aitibae qaeidat wade jmye halat altaradud bayn almawdue walfael. tudhkar faqat 'ana alfiel "to be" mukhtalif wade alzarf baedah.
aistimarat alsuwal image
litarah 'asyilatan hawl altakrar , nastakhdim eadtan "km maratan ...?" ealaa sabil almathal:
kam marat tushahid alaflam?
kam marat yaleab altns?
kam marat tasil alqitarat muta'akhrat?
walakun min almmkn aydana tarh al'asyilat bbsatt ean tariq takrar altaradud. ealaa sabil almathal:
hal ghalba ma tati huna?
hal taemal dayimaan bjd?
hal yadfaeun fi 'ayi waqt fi alwaqt almuhadada? ("abdana" bdlaan min "mtlqana" lil'asyila)
zuruf taradad mae 'afeal mashrutat wa'afeal musaeada
'iidha kan hunak faeal mashrut fi aljumlat , nadae zarf altaradud baedah waqabl alfiel alrayiysi. ealaa sabil almathal:
yjb ealayk dayimaan 'an tuhawil 'afdal ma ladik.
yumkinuna eadat aleuthur ealaa maqead fi qitarina.
laa yanbaghi 'abadaan 'an yakun wuqhana lileumla'.
tantabiq alqaeidat nafsiha ealaa alfiel almusaeid - yantaqil zarf altaradud bayn alfiel almusaeid walfiel alrayiysi. ealaa sabil almathal:
lm yasbiq li ziaratan turkia.
'iinah yakhudh al'ashya' daymana min muktibi. 'iinah 'amr muzeaj hqana.
kunt nadiranaan ma wasalat fi waqt muta'akhir min aleamal hataa 'ams.
mumarasa
alan ra'ayt kayf taemal zuruf takrar aleamal , wawadeaha fi almumarasat ean tariq al'iijabat ealaa hadhih al'asyilat biastikhdam zuruf altrdd:
madha tafeal eadat fi laylat alsbt?
kl mataa taraa sadiquk almafadal?
hal tadhhab 'iilaa almasrh?
kam marat taleab alriyadat 'aw tadhhab 'iilaa salat al'aleab alriyadia?
hal tushahid aflamana 'aw baramij tilfizyuniat bial'iinjlizia?
fi 'ayi waqt tadhhab lilnawm eadatan?
kam marat tatanawal altaeam fi mataeam?