Development of psyche, consciousness and personality. Phylogenesis, ontogenesis, anthropogenesis. Development Factors. /part 4/
With the onset of the ganglion nervous system, the emergence of a new stage in the evolution of the animal world, the differentiation and improvement of the central nervous system, the perception and development of the major nervous system, the improvement of the conditional reflection activity in the animals; Later, the truncated nervous system (fish) - tubules located in the cavity of the spinal cord; - amphibians - hematopoietic stem primers; - reptiles - brighter in the hemisphere front of the brain - snakes, lizards, turtles; - birds - greater brain hemisphere development, high brain development, well-developed vision and hearing; - mammals - the highest development of the hemispheres of the brain in the animal world, improvement of the sensory organs; - higher animals - more important for the psyche and the behavior has the cortex of the cerebral hemisphere; in some of the highest animals, even furrows and curves are formed in the bark, therefore a higher perfection of the superior nervous activity. The history of the senior departments of the CNS is, in fact, a history of the stages of improvement of the psyche.
During the initial stages of the evolution of the CNS in the instinctive behavior of the animals, the unconditioning component prevails. However, in the later stages, the pattern of behavior is increasingly determined by the conditional reflexive component, with which the involvement of the psychic is also related. In the later stages along with the perceptions, the thinking / transition from instinctive to intellectual behavior with elements of understanding /. Thinking in the higher animals is developed to varying degrees, in connection with the development of hemispheres of the cerebrum and the cerebral cortex, the highest degree of intellectual behavior is in the monkeys. Intellectual behavior is more plastic than instinctive, it is based on more complex groups of reflexes, a more active use of the past experience, a characteristic part is the thinking in which the understanding stands out, so the animal is capable of reacting to such irritants that are more distant from the satisfaction of their biological needs. But the thinking of the animals is only concrete, imaginary, which means the transformation of the minimal experience in the form of ideas in the sphere of the first signaling system, which is unique to them.
Transition and development of human consciousness - anthropogenesis - the evolutionary transition from monkey to man. The transition from the animal psyche to the human consciousness was in the following direction - by various monkey humans, such as pithentrop, synanthrop, heidelberg man, Neanderthal man, to the closest Croatian man. Labor and public life are the objective factors driving the development of consciousness. Changes in hand functions as a body to perform labor operations are the cause of a number of changes throughout the body, including the nervous system. The mass of the nervous - brain matter is enlarged, and the brain cortex there and there are new furrows and curves in it. The public way of life is the cause of the linguistic communication between people. In this way the second signaling system appears. Under the influence of the use of speech, the voice apparatus in man adapts anatomically and functionally to increase and more complexly modulate the sounds, gradually acquiring its current state.