With one foot in three provinces and once an ancient battleground of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, Guangdong has a little-known ancient pass! 140
There are not many places where the three provinces meet in Guangdong, and there is only one place where there is an ancient pass at the junction of the three provinces, and that is Ying Yang Pass, located in Lianshan Zhuang and Yao Autonomous County, Guangdong, at the junction of Guangdong, Guizhou and Xiang.
This ancient pass was built in the Tang Dynasty and was originally known as Yaying Pass. In 1858, Han Fengxiang, a native of Zhangqiu County in Shandong Province, was appointed as the governor of the Sui Yao Direct Department in Liangshan and renamed Yaying Pass as Yaying Pass, which means "eagle rising to power".
The first is that Yue Fei was stationed here; the second is that Shi Dakai led the Taiping Army to fight for three days and nights at this pass and left the site of the "Ancient Battlefield of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom and the 36 Tombs"; and the third is that the Seventh Red Army passed through this pass in January 1931 and had trenches, forts, etc., and buried guns and bullets. With three histories and three provinces in its footsteps, the Ying Yang Pass is a highlight.
With three provinces and four streams of water, Lianshan Zhuang and Yao Autonomous County were destined to be a military stronghold, and there have been three passes on the Lianshan border since ancient times: Baishi Pass in the north, Ying Yang Pass in the west and Luming Pass in the east.
Ying Yang Pass is located on National Highway 323 near Shangcao Village in Lianshan County, bordering Hezhou in Guangxi and Jianghua County in Hunan Province, 23 kilometres from the county town of Lianshan.
Ying Yang Pass is a historical monument and a red attraction. The Seventh Red Army, founded by General Zhang Yunyi when he led the Baishe Uprising, passed through this pass in 1931.
However, due to its poor accessibility and lack of fame, as well as the fact that Lianshan itself is not a famous tourist town and lacks well-known attractions, there are very few visitors here.
The junction of the three provinces of Guangdong, Guizhou and Xiang, with its rolling hills, was a must-see in those days, but nowadays the well-connected roads have long since left the ancient passes in the cold to a forgotten corner.
The Red Seventh Army, one of the main units of the Red Army, was established in 1929 in Baise. On both sides of the Red Seventh Army flag are photographs of the main figures of the Red Seven Army, including Deng Xiaoping, Li Mingrui, Wei Bachun, Chen Haoren, Lei Jingtian, Wei Yiping, Deng Bachchi, Feng Dafei, Ye Jizhuang, Li Qian, Qin Yingji and 11 others.
It is not known how many remains of Ying Yang Pass still exist. The current Ying Yang Pass scenic spot was restored in 1999 and renovated and expanded in 2012.
The eight words on this stone briefly summarise the history of Ying Yang Pass - 'a historical and majestic pass' and 'the official road between the two provinces'.
Ying Yang Pass is a small place, with a newly built section of wall, a pavilion with boundary markers between the two provinces and a sculpture of an eagle.
Of course, the provincial border is not as clearly demarcated as the national border, so you wouldn't know if you were stepping on it or not.
The Ying Yang Pass is a place where you can see three provinces, but it belongs to Lianshan County in Guangdong Province, Hezhou City in Guangxi Province to the west and Jianghua County in Hunan Province to the north. Lianshan is also the source of the Xijiang, Beijiang and Tuojiang rivers, so it can be called the "border of three provinces and the source of three rivers".
The famous calligrapher and painter Guan Shangyue inscribes 'Ying Yang Guan'.
According to historical records, in the ninth year of Shaoxing (1131 AD), Cao Cheng, a fugitive from the Jin army, disturbed the area and Yue Fei, a famous Jin fighter, led his troops to chase him down.
The pavilion we now see, this seemingly ordinary pavilion, is in fact a very significant one. The pavilion was built by Lianshan and He County (now Hezhou City), and the words 'Ying Yang Guan' were inscribed by Ren Zhongyi, a member of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and former Secretary of the Guangdong Provincial Committee.
The inscription "On 17 January 1931, the Seventh Red Army passed through this pass" was written by Qin Yingji, a member of the Central Advisory Committee, who was Chairman of the People's Government of the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Secretary of the Party Committee and Chairman of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference. A native of Donglan County, Guangxi, Qin joined the Baishe Uprising in 1929 and was incorporated into the Seventh Army of the Chinese Workers' and Peasants' Red Army; in 1931, as a messenger, he moved with his troops to the Central Soviet Area in Jiangxi.
On the night of 17 January 1931, when the 55th and 58th Regiments of the Seventh Red Army entered Ying Yang Pass via Guangxi as part of a strategic transfer, there was a fierce battle with the Guangdong Liangshan Regiment, in which Qin Yingji took part. In 1971, Qin made a special trip to Ying Yang Pass in search of these revolutionary relics but was unsuccessful.
The No. 1 boundary marker at the Guangdong-Guizhou border of the State Council, with Guangdong on one side and Guangxi on the other.
Apart from Yue Fei and the Seventh Red Army, Ying Yang Pass was also an ancient battleground of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom. On 21 December 1859, the winged king of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, Shi Dakai, led tens of thousands of rebellious troops to move from Guangxi and prepare to break the pass into Guangdong. The vanguard came to Luchongkou, just outside the pass. At that time, Zhou Rui Zhen and Zhou Xian Shi, the leaders of the Miaojiang village militia group near Ying Yang Pass, had already sent their countrymen to guard the area. The Taiping army sent two spies to Ying Yang Pass to detect the road, but one of them was shot dead by the villagers.
When the Taiping army attacked Ying Yang Pass, the militia dug earth and stones to form a fortress to resist the attack and sent the villagers to scatter in the mountains. The Taiping army forcibly attacked and fought a bloody battle with the villagers. Zhou Ruizhen "killed all the Taiping soldiers".
The battle lasted for two days and nights, with the Taiping army suffering heavy casualties due to their unfamiliarity with the terrain, and the militia group suffering over a thousand casualties, with only 17 escaping. The ruins of the 36 graves of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom still remain on the opposite hill.
The bunkers and trenches are said to have been leftover from the battle and seem to tell us a silent story of the Taiping army's fierce battles with the militia.
The smoke has long since cleared, and now only a few of the remaining bunkers and trenches can be imagined from the blood-soaked hills and fields of the past, as this historic pass has gradually been forgotten.
The once majestic pass is now little known. Over a hundred years ago, it was a thoroughfare for three provinces and a key place for soldiers, but today, with highways, national roads, provincial roads and county roads crisscrossing the area around Ying Yang Pass, the once major traffic route has been forgotten in the mountains and turned into a rarely visited attraction.