Science: The layers of the earth

The layers of the earth


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The outer space is very interesting and intriguing but today we are going to focus on the earth and the layers it consist out of.

Let's watch this video first


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The layers

The earth consist out of four layers:

  1. Crust
  2. Mantle
  3. Inner Core
  4. Outer Core

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Let's learn some more about each layer

1. Crust

The earth crust is that part of the earth where we live. It's thickness is from 0-60km. It consist out of a solid rock layer that is divided into two types.

  • Continental crust cover the land
  • Oceanic crust covers water

2. Mantle

The Mantle, as you can see from the picture, is the widest section of the Earth. It is approximately 2 900km thick. The mantle is made up of semi-molten rock that is known as magma. In the upper part of the mantle the rock is hard, but in the lower part of the mantle the rock is softer and it begins to melt.

The mantle consist out of hot and dense rock. This rock flows like asphalt under the heavy weight. The flow of the rocks is caused due to the greatest temperature differences from the bottom to the top of the mantle. The temperature in the upper part of the mantle is about 1600F and in the bottom part about 4000F.

The plates of the Earth move because of the movement of the mantle.

3. Inner Core

The inner core of the earth is the center and the hottest layer of the earth. It is solid and made up of iron and nickel with a temperature of up to 5 500 C. The inner core is also known as the engine room of the Earth.

4. Outer Core

The outer core of the earth can be seen similar to a very hot ball of metals. The temperature of the outer core is from around 4000 F to 9000 F. All the metals that is found in the outer core is in liquid state due to the temperature of the outer core. It is located at around 1800 miles under the crust and is also approximately 1400 miles thick.
The outer core is composed out of metals as iron and nickel.

Science projects

Build a model using any materials that demonstrates the layers of the earth:
Model 1 - Use Cake and smarties

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Model 2 - Polystyrene ball and colourants

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Model 3 - Do some decoupage with paper or egg cartons

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Model 4 - Use clay

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Here is another video about the earth and it's layers


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Created by Giphy

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